Americans need a bill of rights for an AI-driven world

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In the past Over the past ten years, data-driven technology has changed the world around us.We have seen the possibility through collecting a lot of data and training artificial intelligence Explain it: the computer for learning Translation language, Facial recognition system Unlock our smartphone, Algorithm Identify cancer In patients. The possibilities are endless.

But these new tools have also caused serious problems.What machine learning depends on many things-including The data used to train them.

Data sets that do not represent American society may lead to virtual assistants not understand Southern accent; facial recognition technology, cause False, discriminatory arrests; and health care algorithms Reduce severity African-American kidney disease prevents people from receiving kidney transplants.

Training machines based on early examples can embed past biases and realize current discrimination.Employment tools Learning characteristics Of company employees can reject job applicants who are different from their current employees, even though they are highly qualified—for example, female computer programmers. Mortgage approval algorithm Determining credit value can easily infer that certain family zip codes are related to race and poverty, extending decades of housing discrimination into the digital age.Artificial intelligence can Recommended medical support It is suitable for the groups that receive hospital services most often, not the groups that need these services the most.Indiscriminately training artificial intelligence in Internet conversations can result exist”Sentiment analysis” The words “black”, “Jew” and “homosexual” are considered negative.

These technologies also raise questions about privacy and transparency. When we let the smart speaker play a song, is it recording? What our kids say? When students take the test online, should they The webcam is monitored and tracked Their every move? Do we have the right to know why we were denied housing loans or interviews?

In addition, there is the problem of deliberate abuse of artificial intelligence. Some despotism Use it as a tool of state-supported oppression, division, and discrimination.

In the United States, some of the failures of artificial intelligence may be unintentional, but they are serious and disproportionately affect individuals and communities that have been marginalized.They are usually due to AI developers not using appropriate data sets, not having a comprehensive review system, and not having different perspectives around the desktop to predict and solve problems forward The product is used (or the product that cannot be repaired is killed).

In a highly competitive market, it seems easier to cut corners. However, it is unacceptable to create an AI system that will harm many people, just as it is unacceptable to create medicines and other products (whether it is cars, children’s toys, or medical equipment) that will harm many people.

Americans have the right to expect better. Strong technology should be required to respect our democratic values ​​and observe the central principle that everyone should be treated fairly. Coding these ideas helps ensure this.

Soon after ratifying our constitution, the Americans passed a bill of rights to guard against the powerful government we just created-enumerating safeguards such as freedom of speech and assembly, due process and fair trial rights, and protection against unreasonable searches and seizures. . Throughout our history, we have to reinterpret, reaffirm and regularly extend these rights. In the 21st century, we need a “Bill of Rights” to guard against the powerful technologies we create.

Our country should clarify the rights and freedoms we expect data-driven technology to respect. What exactly these are needs to be discussed, but here are some possibilities: you have the right to know when and how artificial intelligence affects decisions that affect your civil rights and civil liberties; The impact of AI that is biased and has been trained on a sufficiently representative data set; You are protected from universal or discriminatory surveillance and surveillance in your home, community, and workplace; If the use of the algorithm harms you, you have the right Gain meaningful recourse.

Of course, enumerating rights is only the first step. What can we do to protect them? Possible situations include the federal government’s refusal to purchase software or technical products that do not respect these rights, requiring federal contractors to use technology that complies with this “Bill of Rights”, or adopting new laws and regulations to fill in the gaps. Countries may choose to adopt a similar approach.



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